What is Addiction ?


In Uganda and in the world, the rates of tobacco, alcohol and drug purchases are increasing rapidly, and the age of starting to the substance is gradually decreasing. Like other addictions, technology and gambling addiction lead to personal, family and collective psychological, sociological and economic damages.

Addiction affects one’s physical, mental and social life negatively. It is only possible to prevent addictions that can be considered catastrophic to society through a good conservative public health approach

For the diagnosis of addiction, which is a psychiatric syndrome, it is enough that only the three of the following criteria are seen together

  • Tolerance development in the material used
  • The manifestation of withdrawal symptoms when the item is cut or reduced
  • Efforts to control or abandon the use of drugs
  • Spend a lot of time to provide, use or leave the item
  • The negative effects of substance use on social, professional and personal activities
  • Taking the material longer and higher
  • Continue substance use despite the emergence or increase of physical or mental problems

Physical dependence is a physiological demand for the presence of the substance depending on the development of an adaptation to the substance used. Psychological dependence is the person’s emotional or personality needs, satisfaction with his / her needs, and his intention to do so

Addiction is a serious disease. Many neurochemical and neurophysiological changes in the brain related to addiction were detected. Addiction treatment can be provided by a comprehensive protocol that includes specific schemes and principles. Dependents acknowledge that dependence is a disease and their compliance with treatment is increasing if they know that they are the rules that must be followed.

Smoking and Tobacco Dependence

What is tobacco addiction ?

Smoking is a major public health problem in the world and in our country, and it has the potential to become addictive because it contains nicotine at a high rate.

Smoking with cigarettes, water pipes, drinking pipes or smoking causes psychological and physical dependence on the person over time. There are more than 4000 chemicals in tobacco products. The main addictive substance is nicotine. Smokeless tobaccos that are smoked and pulled out or chewed contain poison as high as nicotine.

Health problems caused

  • Heart and vascular diseases
  • Bronchial narrowing resulting lung disorders and COPD
  • Blockage in veins and related paralysis
  • Midede gastritis, ulcer and stomach cancer
  • Skin wrinkle, wrinkle, skin cancer
  • Oral odor and reeling in teeth
  • Smoking in pregnancy leads to premature birth and consequently to various developmental disorders, and to postpartum smoking

After we quit smoking …

  • Two hours after you quit smoking, your nicotine starts to leave your body.
  • After 6 hours the heart rate and blood pressure starts to fall.
  • After 12 hours, poisonous carbon monoxide from cigarette smoke is cleared from your bloodstream and your lungs work better.
  • After 2 days your taste and smell sharpens your senses.
  • Blood circulation improves within 2-12 weeks, which facilitates physical activities such as walking, running.
  • After 3-9 weeks, problems like coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing are reduced and your lungs become stronger.
  • Within 5 years the risk of heart attack is reduced by half.
  • After 10 years, the risk of a heart attack falls to the same level as the risk of a nonsmoker, while the risk of lung cancer goes down.

Do you know?

  • Every year in the world 6 million people lose their lives due to smoking.This number means that one person dies in a cigar every 10 seconds.
  • A person who smokes about half a pack of cigarettes a day sends 300 nicotine strokes to his brain every day

It is possible to leave!

Behavioral counseling and drug treatment are of great importance in smoking cessation treatment. Many patients in our country have smoking cessation clinics. In addition, private health institutions also provide pharmacological and psychological treatment services to quit smoking.

The purpose of medication treatment is to eliminate the nicotine withdrawal that occurs after the cessation of cessation. These medicines are prescribed by the doctor. Nevertheless, do not rely on smoking cessation products that are sold without consulting a health professional.


It should also be kept in mind that smoking has psychological and behavioral aspects. If these factors are not studied sufficiently, the person may start smoking again after the nicotine withdrawal has passed. According to the addiction criteria of the patient, the ability to cope with planned psychological treatment, anger control, family interview, motivation studies and different therapy methods are applied

  • Set the release date.
  • Tell your people you plan to quit smoking.
  • Try to anticipate the difficulties you may face and make plans.
  • Remove all cigarettes, lighters, matches and ash plates from your surroundings.
  • Consider the benefits of leaving.
  • Find new things to do.

If your child is smoking

  • If you catch your child smoking cigarettes, just take the package in hand and remind them about the rules of home or school smoking.
  • Give me the same reaction every time you catch with a cigarette.The important thing is to give consistent responses. Be clear of your boundaries.
  • You go to the rules, you guys should not see you smoking.
  • Talk about the cigarette effects without using the advice language. Make sure you learn the right information

Risk factors

  • Nicotine is highly addictive.
  • Symptoms of withdrawal occur at least half of the smokers trying to quit.
  • Users have a difficult time imagining a life without smoke.Some users think they can leave it alone without help.
  • Some users have limited accumulation of strategies to cope with negative emotions, or think that it is very easy to quit smoking, so you do not have to deal with it.

Passive Smoking

A passive smoker is a person who does not smoke but is exposed to cigarette smoke. The effects of being a passive smoker vary according to the time, intensity and frequency of exposure to cigarette smoke, and millions of people die every year due to illness caused by cigarette smoking.

  • Exposure to tobacco smoke causes many diseases such as cancer, heart diseases and COPD.
  • Children are much more susceptible to the harmful effects of tobacco smoke.
  • Exposure to tobacco smoke for only 30 minutes leads to physical effects that appear in long-term smokers.

Alcohol Addiction

What is Alcohol addiction ?

There are many kinds of alcohol. The so-called ethanol is consumed as a drink. Alcohol consumed as a drink causes many diseases. Alcohol, on the other hand, weakens the will, the person experiences a loss of control and brings the drugs to the open. 57 percent of drug users use alcohol. Staying away from alcohol has a preventive role in the prevention of other substance dependencies.

People who drink a lot and drink alcohol frequently, who want to drink alcohol even though their physical, mental and social health is impaired, is called alcoholic. Of the 2 billion people who use alcohol in the world, 76 million are alcohol addicts. 1 million 800 thousand people lose their lives for this reason. The first consumption age in our country has fallen to 11.

Alcohol Pathway in the Body

Alcohol migrates from the stomach surface to the cells. 20 percent from the midle, 80 percent from the small intestines to the blood. Next stop is the liver. The liver’s priority is to produce energy by burning fatty acids. However, alcohol changes this priority. Normally, the fatty acids that will break down start to accumulate in the liver and the liver is greased. It reaches alcohol, blood, heart, lungs and bronchi.

It reaches the brain within minutes of the lungs and makes a numbing effect. Alcohol reaches all the cells 3 minutes after being taken in the body. The amount of alcohol consumed, after passing a certain level, slows the respiration and causes coma or even death in the person.

Alcohol dependence statements

  • Increase in the amount of alcohol used to enable the person to be accustomed to the activity;The same feeling as the amount of alcohol used in the past and the inability to achieve the effect (tolerance)
  • To reduce the amount of alcohol used by the person or to withdraw from the alcohol as a sign of deprivation into a number of spiritual and physical disturbances and the feeling of withdrawal from the user feeling relaxed with alcohol intake
  • Use of alcohol in excess of the amount that the person intends to drink
  • Spending too much time to provide alcohol, use alcohol, or get rid of the effects of alcohol
  • Reduction or abandonment of important social, professional or leisure activities due to alcohol use
  • The existence of unsuccessful attempts to quit or control alcohol use
  • Continue to drink alcohol even though it is known to be harmed by alcohol

Problems that lead

  • Food borne, laryngeal, stomach and pancreatic cancers
  • Corruption of brain functions such as right thinking, decision making and acting
  • Sleep disorders, headache, eye damage
  • Heart and blood circulation diseases
  • Prevention of blood clotting
  • Severe damage to the liver


Treatment for Alcohol may take time to accept that alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence develops because it is a psychoactive substance that also has social use. Alcohol dependence develops when many people who use alcohol continue to social use. Individuals and relatives who use alcohol and seek treatment for their problems and who are seeking solutions to these problems may be treated by visiting the psychiatric clinics with Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Centers (AMATEM).

  • The treatment should be chosen according to the needs of the patient.
  • The destination is sobriety.This is important for the differential diagnosis and treatment of accompanying psychiatric disorders.
  • Long follow-up is required after treatment.If a person is hospitalized for a long time, it is likely that he will start taking alcohol again if he is not followed later. Taking regular counseling or participating in help groups reduces the risk of resuming.
  • Relapses (recurrences) are common in the first 6 months.
  • Alcohol’s family is an important factor in the treatment of alcoholism.His wife, who says he can not stay with him for as long as he does not drink, may be alone enough to try his alcohol abstinence test.
  • If the alcohol-dependent individual refuses to see an original treatment program for alcoholism, the physician should wait for a psychosocial crisis that he or she will accept as a treatment, without interrupting the alcoholic relationship.

Driving with alcohol!

Alcohol reduces the amount of oxygen in the body. The brain, which does not get enough oxygen, begins to lose its functions. As the fear of alcohol decreases and self-confidence increases, the driver tends to take risks and increase the likelihood of an accident. Even if a person fits the rules in their normal life, this can change when under the influence of alcohol. Decreased cerebral functions such as balance, vision, hearing of the body, resulting in decreased muscle control and attention. Suddenly a living creature or a vehicle in front of the driver in the case of the reaction duration is longer. This increases the likelihood of an accident.


Alcohol passes directly from the mother’s blood to the baby’s blood through the placenta. The alcohol in the mother’s blood is the same as the alcohol in the baby’s blood. Alcohol used in pregnancy causes low and stillbirths, development retardation in the baby, social development and mental retardation.

Do you know?

  • Each year, 3.5 million people lose their lives due to alcohol-related causes.
  • Alcohol is the third leading cause of deaths and injuries that can be prevented worldwide.
  • Material damage caused by alcohol is much higher than alcohol.
  • Failure in education, suicidal tendency, alcoholic health problems increase in direct proportion to alcohol use.


What to do?

  • Help your dependents see the consequences of their behavior.
  • Show sincere interest, remember that alcohol is a disease.
  • Be knowledgeable about addiction treatment methods.You mentioned the addiction.
  • Be prepared to allow the dependent person to accept help. Consult with the treatment center in advance and make the necessary adjustments. So you have removed the excuses to prevent it from moving.

What should not he do?

  • Avoid approaches such as hate, hostility, bad words, cursing, teaching morals, and remember that you are trying to help him.
  • Storing it will cause the problem of trying not to tell the neighborhood to be deeper.

Substance Addiction

What is Drug addiction ?

Substance dependency is the use of substances that affect the functions of the body in a negative way, so that the use of these substances cannot be discontinued if they are harmed. Dependent lives a withdrawal statement when it pauses for substance use. Over time it increases the frequency of substance use and dose.

Only 3 of the following people are dependent on a 12 month period.

  • Increasing the amount of substances used despite the problems.
  • Your wasted efforts are wasted.
  • It takes a lot of time to provide, use or leave the material.
  • Reduction or abandonment of social, vocational and personal activities


The chemical structures of the substances used as drugs are different from each other. They affect different parts of the central nervous system when used, leading to physical and psychological malaise. There is no safe use of drugs in the form. Everyone who uses it equals the risk of being addicted. Our cells recognize every substance that enters the body and take it to the memory to remember it again. This situation, called the cellular learning process, applies to everyone.

  • It makes the mind and willing not to work.It removes the person from normal life and behavior.
  • It causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, stomach and intestinal spasms / hemorrhages.
  • It causes all internal organs to be damaged and a number of accompanying diseases.
  • It causes poisoning and deaths that come in this way.
  • Drugs reduce the ability of the individual to adapt to the environment.The dependent gradually goes away from the family and around him. Often this situation is accompanied by severe crises.

What to do?

  • If the person is under the influence of the material, it will not help you to talk with him in this situation.
  • Do not talk to him unless you are ready.
  • Be open, sincere and convincing, do not give advice.
  • Avoid making generalizations.
  • Do not speak based on your fears.
  • Avoid labeling him because it is very difficult to approach the tagged “user”.
  • Be aware of your prejudices (“They are not prosperous”), thus reducing the likelihood of miscommunication.
  • Try to understand your thoughts, experiences and fears by trying to put yourself in its place.
  • Convince him with a sincere approach to getting expert help.

What should not he do?

  • Denial-Denial: “No, my child will never use it.”
  • Do not blame yourself and your wife: “That’s what this boy is about because of you.” “We could not be good parents.”
  • Feeling of frustration, helplessness: “Did I bring you up for this?” “It’s over, now nothing can be like the old one.”
  • Anger: “I cannot be such a child!”
  • Blame and humiliation of the child: “Nothing will happen to you.”
  • Making extreme decisions: “Your school life is over.”

Preventive factors

  • Accurate information on drugs related to age
  • Strong and positive family ties
  • They should be aware of their parents’ children and knowing that their children are friends with others
  • Family rules are open and everyone follows them
  • Success in school
  • Strong links established with schools, NGOs and clubs

For treatment

Individuals and their relatives who are using drugs and seeking treatment for their problems can be treated by visiting the psychiatric clinics with Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Centers (AMATEM). The treatment carried out in cooperation with the patient and the doctor takes place in the form of psycho-social treatment for one year and inpatient treatment between 2-6 weeks.
The best protection is never to begin.

Salvation possible

  • Addiction may improve, but serious effort and time are required for complete recovery.
  • It is the most important step for the person to be treated and to feel ready.
  • In this process, it is important that the right communication and dependents share their experiences with their relatives.
  • Addiction treatment varies according to the type of person, the type of substance used and the duration of use.
  • It is almost impossible for a person to leave the matter alone.

Risk factors

  • Children with psychological problems or parents who are addicted to any substance are at greater risk
  • Attachment and lack of interest between parent and child (especially the lack of ‘Father’ role in the home environment)
  • Excessive shyness or violence in the class
  • Decline in school success

Prevention is important!

Efforts to prevent the use and spread of addictive substances in the society are made in order to minimize the individual and social problems created by these substances and to ensure that healthy behaviors develop in the society.

  • Addiction is a very difficult disease after its development.
  • The cost of long-term therapy is very high.
  • If the necessary socio-psychological measures are not taken after the improvement, the repetition rate of addiction is very high.
  • Due to the negative effect of drug use on human health, health expenditures of the country are increasing.
  • It has been observed that the cost of any kind of prevention program is lower than the cost of treatment.

Technology Addiction

What is technology dependency ?

There are countless benefits that technology brings to human life. However, the loss of control over one’s use of technology and the unlimited and unlimited use of technology can cause very serious damage. Internet and technology dependency are defined as a situation in which they are deprived when they cannot reach the technological product that the person is addicted to, such as in other addictions.

Indication of technology dependency

  • Spend hours just saying a few minutes.
  • To lie about your time when you are across the screen to your screen.
  • To complain about physical problems because of using computers for a long time.
  • Taking an anonymous personality, preferring to talk over the internet with people face to face.
  • Making compromises on meals, courses or appointments to enter the main building.
  • While you are guilty for having spent a lot of time at the beginning of your computer, you also have to take great pleasure and go back and forth between these two emotions.
  • When you’re away from your computer, you feel nervous and frustrated.
  • Stay at the computer late at night.

Problems caused by technology dependency

Physical complaints

  • Burning in the eyes
  • Pain and stiffness in the neck muscles
  • Disorder in body posture
  • Numbness in the hand
  • Weakness

Social complaints

  • Decline in academic achievement
  • Personal, family and school problems
  • Failure to manage time
  • Sleep disorders
  • Not eating
  • Decrease in activities
  • Insulation apart from Internet friends

Methods of controlling addiction

  • Change daily internet usage hours.
  • Prepare weekly internet usage schedules and ensure compliance.
  • Spend some time with support groups or methods like family therapy.
  • Ask them to write a book about the activities they want to do, and ask them to do something they write when they are willing to use the internet.

Preventing addiction in children and adolescents

Children under 2 years old are not suitable for internet, TV or computer. Internet use is sufficient for the preschool age group, not exceeding 30 minutes per day. In the first 4 years of primary education, except for homework, 45 minutes of daily play and entertainment time should be reserved. In the following years, the weekend is more flexible and suitable for 1 hour a day. In high school, 2 hours a day is enough.

Do you know?

  • Deprivation status;was determined in 74.5% of the dependent students and 10.5% of the non-dependent students.
  • Do not lie to hide the time you spend on the Internet;were detected in 38% of the dependent students and 4% of the non-dependent students.
  • While on the Internet, feelings of guilt were detected in 33% of dependent students and 4.3% of non-dependent students.

What to do?

  • Direct your children to negotiate with their friends on natural routes, and socialize within peer groups.
  • Direct your children to sports branches suitable for their talents and interests.
  • Support your child’s friendship relationships and plan activities that will bring them together.
  • Check your child’s computer use and know your friends in the virtual environment.
  • Take care to have secure internet applications on your computers.
  • If you cannot prevent your child using a computer for a long time, be sure to get expert help.

What should not to do?

  • Smart phone / tablet etc.Never use tools like consoles to consoling children.
  • Do not allow children to be uncontrolled and use the internet for a long time.
  • Do not serve the child on the computer during lunch and tea hours, so you can join.
  • Do not install a TV or internet-like technological appliance centered house structure.

Gambling Addiction

What is gambling addiction ?

In the Penal Code, the gambling, which is described as “a game in which profit and loss are connected with the betting and chance,” is the winning and losing sides on the basis of entering into the risk, and both sides are given redistribution of wealth without a production work. is the name. Today, it has a wide range of games, including luck and betting games, which are presented as a means of enjoyment, entertainment and relaxation. Gambling, personality, family and gathering is a psychological, sociological and economic addiction with huge damages.

Loss caused by Gambling


  • It causes psychological problems.
  • Other dependencies are more likely to spread easily (such as alcohol, cigarettes).
  • The individual who becomes selfish and beneficent with the ambition of winning does not hesitate to harm himself and the environment.
  • He does not fulfill his responsibilities to the family and the environment because of his gambling passion.
  • It is involved in a complex network of relationships that can result in physical harm (it is unknown who has such sectors, and the person is pushed into a world where there is no winner).
  • Person with material loss; it becomes harmful to itself, the family and the community.


  • The trust environment in the family disappears.
  • It leads to financial losses in the family, and psychological, familial and social problems arise from such losses (divorce, domestic violence, etc.).
  • Relationships that are initiated for the financing of gambling are reflected in the family order and individuals.


  • Unfair earnings become legitimate; easy profit becomes the ideal of new generations.
  • Illegal structures and organizations gain power and wealth through these means.
  • The understanding of society-based approaches such as work, dignity, rights and law falls from the ground up.
  • Social morality is injured.
  • The interest and the ambition to win are reflected in all social relations.
  • Peace and confidence in the community is injured.

To be able to cope with the idea of ​​gambling a person …

  • It should stay away from gambling places and sites that are gambling on the internet.
  • Gambling should move away from what makes up the mindset (horse racing programs, casino ads, lottery tickets, etc.)
  • He should stay away from those who are interested in gambling.
  • You should avoid entering the discussions on gambling.
  • You should keep enough money to meet your daily needs, except for credit cards and ATM cards.
  • Changing the way of life, positive behaviors are required instead of negative habits.
  • A gambler should not hesitate to resort to addiction treatments and fight gambling in this way if someone close to someone who knows that they are gambling.
  • It is important to communicate for support and to ask for a trusted family friend or help.
  • It is important to be busy with other things. Turning attention to other activities (doing work at home, going to the spore) will be beneficial.

How can I help you?

  • By putting limits on money management or by taking financial responsibility on the family, you are taking measures against both gambling and recurrence.
  • You should be prepared for the gambler to ask for money through pleading, threats or blame, and you should develop strategies.
  • Buying therapy support for yourself and the gambler will help you deal with the problem more easily.

Risk factors

  • Gamblers hope to get back what they lost once. When this does not happen, they try to cover up their behavior and losses with lies.
  • They can engage in unlawful acts such as fraud, fraud, theft, embezzlement to provide the money needed to play gambling.
  • Because of gambling they risk or lose an important relationship, job, education.
  • Addicts who realize they can not compensate for their losses can experience severe depression, depression, and even suicide.

For treatment

This pathological addiction should be considered as a public health problem as it is not limited to the effect of this bad habit which destroys the society and deepens the society and destroys the family. Treatment of this condition is possible. Since the substance addiction treatment model is often applied in the treatment of pathological gambling addiction, these persons should be directed to the substance addiction treatment departments.

Success can be achieved with a treatment program tailored to the individual. First of all, it is necessary to accept that gambling addiction (by the gambler) is a pathological disorder.

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